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Condition of Certain Indian Tribes.
Testimony of G. W. Stidham
Eufaula, Ind. T., May 25, 1885
before the US Senators.

..."the treaty provides that such and such a class of colored people shall be citizens with equal rights with us in the country---those that we held as slaves,.."
Q. Have you some officers who are negroes?
--A. Yes, sir. Some members of the council are negroes, and we have one negro supreme judge, and the captain of the light horse is a negro.
Q. Have you any negroes who are school teachers?
--A. Yes, sir.

Q. Is there any discrimination as to holding office, or any other privilege in the nation?
--A. No, sir.

Q. A few moments ago you spoke of a supreme judge being a negro.
--A. Yes, sir. (Justice Jesse Franklin, Creek Freedmen, Dunn Roll #1268)

Q. What is the proportion of representation in the council between the negroes and Indians?
--A. The representation is governed by towns in which they originally lived, instead, as it should be counties. They are represented by the old towns. They are represented in that way, and the colored people form three towns, according to the population. In one town there is about 1,400 and the representation, of course, is very large.

Q.How many colored members are there in the council?
--A. I suppose we have about twenty in one house.

Q. From one town?
--A. No, sir; from three towns.

Q. Then representation in the house is based upon population?
--A. Yes, sir.

Q. I will ask you, in the house of warriors what is the proportion of strength between the negroes and Indians?
--A. I think they have nearly twenty representatives out of ninety.

Q. How is it in the upper house?
--A. They have three members in the upper house.

Q. Of how many members does the upper house consist?
--A. It consist of forty five members in all.

Q. Was the negro judge of the supreme court elected by the Indians?
--A. Yes, sir.

Q. He could not have been elected without the consent of the Indians?
--A. No , sir.
Q.If I understand you, you consider the negroes who came in under the treaty of 1866--that is to say, those born and raised among you, whose homes are here and who came in as Creeks under the treaty--are citizens?
--A. Yes, sir; that is what the treaty says...

Q. Your council consists of two houses?
--A. Yes, sir.
Q. The upper house is called the house of kings?
--A. Yes, sir.
Q. And the lower house the house of warriors?
--A. Yes, Sir.

Reconstruction Indian Conditions 1866 Mackey, click here

Jesse Franklin, Creek Freedmen, Supreme Court Judge, click here

1879 Senate Committee on Territories Testimonies of Creek Leaders (a vidal read) click here

The Loyal Creek Claims, see which of your ancestors are listed here, click here

The Curtis Act of June 28, 1898, click here


Creek Nation writes history, excluding the history of African slavery and the contributions of Creek Freedmen, click here

The Creek Colored Tribal Towns

Arkansas Colored

Canadian Colored

Northfork Colored

Taken from the 1891 Perryman Map of the Creek Nation by Donald A. Wise
In 1891 the Creek Council made a complete census of citizens in the Creek Nation listing the 48 political towns and their respective population totals. This enumeration included 9,639 Creek Indians and 4,203 Negroes for a total figure of 13,842.  Whites, Chinese and Indians from other tribes were not listed since they were not citizens of the Creek Nation in 1891.

   The Executive Council of the Creek Nation was composed of two legislative bodies of elected members. The House of Kings consisting of 48 members were elected and represented each of the 48 Creek Indian town units shown on this map. The other legislative body was called the House of Warriors who were entitled to elect one representive from each of the 48 Creek Town Units and additional representatives for each 200 people living in the designated Creek Town units. This included a total of 98 elected members representing the House of Warriors in 1891.

   Perhaps the most distinctive feature of the Creek government was its use of the town as the unit of elections and administration. After the Creek Indians were removed west of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory, the people no longer restricted their residence to the towns, but the older
system of governmental units was preserved

 The Creek Nation Census of 1891 had the following population figures for the 48 respective Creek Indian town units shown on this map:
   l.  Coweta - 593
  2.  Broken Arrow (Thlikachka) - 431
  3.  Cheyah (Chiaha) - 154
  4.  Lockarpoka (Tulsa-Arkansas) - 194
  5.  Chonchartey (Concharty) - 194
  6.  Hechetey (Hitchitee) - 182
  7.  Cussehta (Cusseta) - 434
  8.  Taskeka (Tuskegee) - 401
  9.  Tulsa (Canadian) - 140
 10. Tulsa (Little River) - 360
 11. Noyarka (Nuyarka) - 237
 12. Alafaske (Okfuskee-Canadian) - 136
 13. Arbekoche - 73
 14. Arbeka - North Fork - 132
 15. Arbeka - Deep Fork - 141
 16. Asselaraapeor Granlief (Ussalarnuppee)[Greenleaf] - 109
 17. Oewohka (Wewoka) - 102
 18. Tharthoculka (Fish Pond) - 160
 19. Tharprakko (Thlopthlocco) - 334
 20. Tokebachee (Tuckabatchee) - 785
 21. Thewahley (Thlewarle) - 196
 22. Kialiga (Kialigee) - 246
 23. Tokpafka (Tookparfka) - 92
 24. Talmochassee (Talmochussee) - 86
 25. Yoofula (Eufaula-Canadian) - 236
 26. Yoofula (Eufaula-Deep Fork) - 133
 27. Pakantalahassee (Pukkon Tullahassee) - 102
 28. Hillabe (Hillabee) - 109
 29. Chartaksofka -
 30. Kichopatake (Kechopatarky) - 391
 31. Artussee - 150
 32. Tallahossochee (Tullahassochee) - 59
 33. Allabama (Alabama) - 171
 34. Wewogufke - 185
 35. Osochee - 87
 36. Oeokofke (Wewoka) - 102
 37. Okeharya (Okchiye) - 212
 38. Ocheyapo a (Ochiapofa)[Hickory Ground] - 331
 39. Talwathakko (Tulwa Thlocco) - 171
 40. Talartoga (Talledaga) - 159
 41. Hutschechapa (Hutche Chappa) - 196
 42. Quassartey (Koasata) No. l - 79
 43. Quassartey No. 2 - 48
 44. Yoachee (Euchee) - 580
 45. Big Spring (Wekiwa Thlocco) - 180 

 46. Arkansas (Colored) - 1,970 

 47. North Fork (Colored) - 789 

 48. Canadian (Colored) - l,444 

The above article was published in the Tulsa Annals, vol. XXXI, no. 3 of 3, Summer, 1996, pp. 9-13.

If you are interested in participating in the reorganization of your ancestor's tribal town, email us your contact information using one of the following tribal town email addresses.




The 1895 Arkansas Colored Tribal Town Roll, click here.

The 1895 Canadian Colored Tribal Town Roll, click here.

The 1895 North Fork Colored Tribal Town Roll, click here.

Arkansas Colored Tribal Town 1895 PAYROLL, click here.

Canadian Colored Tribal twon 1895 PAYROLL, click here.

North Fork Tribal Town 1895 PAYROLL, click here.

Omitted Freedmen on the 1895 Tribal Town Rolls, click here.

Arkansas Colored 1896 Colbert Census Roll, click here.

Canadian Colored 1986 Colbert Census Roll, click here.

Canadian Colored 1896 Colbert Census Roll (hand written), click here.

If you are interested in participating in the reorganization of your ancestor's tribal town, email us your contact information using one of the following tribal town email addresses.




Towns and Villages of the Creek Confederacy in 18th and 19th Century, click here


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Testimonies of Creek Freedmen
Elected Leaders of the Council

Sugar George, click here

Simon Brown, click here

Monday Marshall, click here

Joseph Howard, click here

George Dann, click here


Black, White and Indian, by Claudio Saunt, click here

North Fork Town, click here

Town Site Map of North Fork Town (Please don't confuse this town with the North Fork Colored Tribal Town) click here

The Muscogee (Creek)Nation, click here

Muscogee (Creek) Nation, 1979 and current constitution, click here

The Creek Indian Researcher, click here

Government of the Creek Indians, by Morton, click here

Thomas F. Meagher, Indian Pioneer Papers, click here

Creek Freedmen Sandy Tobler served on a jury doing a Creek trail. Just more proof of Creek Freedmen equal citizenship status in the Muscogee (Creek) Nation.

Tullahassee Mission School, click here